LNEC - Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil (National Civil Eng. Laboratory)
LNEC is the largest Portuguese applied research institute in civil engineering and related environmental areas, combining R&D with specialised consultancy and general support to the industry, and spanning such diverse interests as dams, transport, structures, building materials, waterways, harbours, coastal protection or groundwater.
LNEC’s Urban Water Division carries out leading-edge research in water & wastewater infrastructure asset management, performance assessment, efficient water use, treatment and water safety, among other topics. LNEC’s Social Ecology Division is interested in the interactions and mutual conditioning between social action processes, policies and technical standards, and communities, as well as social change and social resilience at the human habitat level. Over the last two decades, LNEC’s R&D on urban water demand and water consumer behaviour has actively combined both division's expertise on water engineering, statistics, infrastructure planning, urban sociology and environmental psychology.